Request PDF on ResearchGate | Vocabulary Learning Strategies and Foreign Language Acquisition | This is the first book that deals primarily with vocabulary. PDF | Vocabulary learning is one of the major challenges foreign language learners face during the process of learning a language (Ghazal. Vocabulary Learning Strategies and Foreign Language Acquisition by Višnja Format: Paperback - pages; Related Formats: Hardback PDF EPUB Its aim is to define the concept of language learning strategies in.
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most learners identify the acquisition of vocabulary as their greatest . strategies used by advanced foreign language students, the study was designed to seek. VOCABULARY LEARNING STRATEGIES AND FOREIGN LANGUAGE ACQUISITION. Visnja Pavičić Takač. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters. Lack of vocabulary is the common problem of English as Foreign Language (EFL ) To many learners, mastering the meaning of a word means to master the.
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This result does not conform to the results found by Al-Nashwan , as he revealed that AFL learners in Saudi Arabia use a monolingual dictionary very often compared with a bilingual dictionary. The reason is perhaps the learning environment; i.
This may lead to learners being able to depend on the Arabic dictionary as they do in their every day live in which they have to use the language. Regarding using a monolingual dictionary, Zhi-liang found that the English dictionary is one of the least used strategies among Chinese learners of English as a second language.
This is expected, as these learners are only learning English as a second or foreign language and English is not their first language. The reason why some learners reported that they use this type of dictionary is perhaps their desire to integrate their language learning or the absence of a reliable Arabic-Arabic dictionary and Arabic- Malay dictionary.
Note taking Table. I make a note of the meaning of a new word when it 3. I write down both the Malay meaning of a word and its 3. I take down examples and sentences showing the 3. I make a note of the meaning of a new word that I think 3. I write down the meaning of a new word to remember 3. I note some grammatical information about the word. I write down some useful phrases and expressions. I write down the Arabic synonyms of the word and its 3.
I write down both the English equivalent of a word and 3.
The means in table. The reason behind that is maybe what is mentioned above regarding the learners desire to build some kind of structure for their language learning. Moreover, it can be inferred from table. Memory and recall Table. I regularly review new words I have memorized. I try to use newly learned words in imaginary 3. I make up my own sentences using the words I just 3.
When I want to memorize a certain word I repeat it 3. I go through my vocabulary list several times until I am 3. I organize and keep vocabulary lists.
I make vocabulary cards and I take them with me. The least memory related strategy used by participants is making vocabulary cards. One reason behind this is perhaps the need to organize the cards, keep them and learn the words from them, which is a demanding and time consuming procedure.
Conclusions, implications, and suggestions for further research Three general conclusions may be inferred from the above results and relevant discussion.
First, it appears that most Malaysian AFL learners hold some sort of insight into the importance of vocabulary learning and the ways in which Arabic vocabulary could be acquired.
From their beliefs, it seems that they are aware of how they could approach vocabulary and what constitutes a good understanding of a vocabulary item. This implies that they could not integrate different VLS and employ them in their struggle to learn Arabic vocabulary.
Using multiple techniques in word learning gives learners flexibility in vocabulary acquisition, and; hence, helps them tackle problems relating to lexical understanding. While in learning and maintaining vocabulary, they prefer mechanical strategies, such as memorization, repetition, and note taking.
Of course, generalization of the above results is limited to the study conditions and sampling. In this study learners were asked to report their beliefs about vocabulary learning and VLS they frequently use in learning Arabic vocabulary.
The problem inherent in this procedure is that learners may respond reporting what they believe true rather than what they really practice in actual situations.
To limit the effect of this difficulty in the results of the present study, the questionnaire used is derived from a widely used instrument in this type of research and it was judged and tested before final application.
However, some implications can be made from the findings of the current research. Moreover, different tasks and activities need to be designed in the light of what learners believe about vocabulary learning. The AFL vocabulary learning program should focus on introducing Arabic words through meaningful contexts and give learners chances to use word items and relate them to their usage. Learning materials also need to sensitize learners to different kinds of lexical information relevant to Arabic words, particularly roots and patterns.
Means fall between 3. These means raise two points. Firstly they indicate that learners who claim to use these strategies may lack the proper techniques to use them correctly. Secondly, the means reveal that a considerable percentage of Malaysian AFL learners do not employ these strategies very often. This requires AFL program to focus on introducing these strategies in a purposeful and organized manner. The Arabic vocabulary learning process in Malaysian AFL context is limited to translation and rote learning Mustafa, et al.
Hence, informed use of VLS is essential to gain the most benefit from utilizing such strategies in Arabic vocabulary learning. Learners should build an awareness of how these strategies work and how they can be invested in facilitating vocabulary learning.
Knowing what strategy to use in a certain situation and how it can be exploited for efficient vocabulary learning is presumably very useful.
Vocabulary Learning Strategies and Foreign Language Acquisition (Second Language Acquisition)
In other words, learners need to see examples of how to employ each strategy, recognize its functions and identify the conditions in which it can be better employed. AFL learning materials must encourage learners to build vocabulary learning habits and become familiar with different VLS. Guessing related strategies that seem to be reportedly less employed by the participants, although more complex ones, as they demand significant manipulation of information, they can be improved through instruction.
Research in second language acquisition found that instructing learners in such strategies could lead to better Vol. As mentioned above, guessing strategies are of special importance for AFL learners, since they are suitable for the large body of vocabulary with which they need to deal. This implies that participants consider such approach important for vocabulary learning. For research in second language vocabulary learning, the findings of the current study seem to correspond in some aspects with those found in research on learning other languages, especially English.
Although more research is needed to consolidate this point, until then, AFL teaching programs can benefit from the tested strategies, methods and activities in terms of learning, teaching and testing Arabic vocabulary. The field of Arabic vocabulary learning requires more research in different areas and levels. The strategies employed by AFL learners should be investigated using tests, self-reports, observations and interviews. Such investigation needs to be done with learners in different levels of language proficiency to explore and compare strategies used in different levels.
Arabic vocabulary instruction should receive adequate research attention too. Moreover, experimenting certain strategies and methods in teaching Arabic vocabulary can shed light on the usefulness of such strategies and methods and improve the vocabulary teaching process.
References Abdul Razak, M. The effectiveness of the keyword method in acquiring Arabic vocabulary, a field study in teaching Arabic as a second language in Malaysia in Arabic.
Unpublished M. Al-Abdan ,A. Umm Al-Qura University Journal, 17, Ali, M. Dar Al-Manar Al-Islami. Al-Nashwan, A. Al-Shuwairekh, S. Unpublished Ph. Barcroft, J. Strategies and performance in intentional L2 vocabulary learning.
Language Awareness, 18 1 , 74 - Sex differences in L2 vocabulary learning strategies. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 13 1 , Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 3, The effects of beliefs about language learning and learning strategy use of junior high school EFL learners in remote districts.
Research in Higher Education Journal. Retrieved July, 15, from http: Fan, M. A Study of Hong Kong Learners. The Modern Language Journal, 87 2 , Gu, Y. RELC Journal, 33 1 , Hamzah, M. European Journal of Social Sciences, 11 1 , Henriksen, B. Three dimensions of vocabulary development. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 21, Khoury, G. Vocabulary acquisition in Arabic as a foreign language: The root and pattern strategy.
Kim, E. Beliefs and experiences of Korean pre-service and in-service English teachers about English vocabulary acquisition strategies. Kudo, Y. L2 vocabulary learning strategies. Retrieved April, 15, , from http: System, 31, Leeke, P. Learners' independent records of vocabulary. System 28 2 , Mobarg, M. Acquiring, Teaching and Testing Vocabulary. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 7 2 , When it comes to learning an L2, however, the answer is not that simple.
Although some research results have confirmed the assumption that L2 vocabulary can also be acquired through exposure to various contexts such as reading, see Sternberg, , these conclusions cannot be interpreted without taking into consideration the factors that directly affect the efficiency of the process. Clearly, the role of the context in initial stages of vocabulary learning is relatively negligible.
Beginners do not have enough linguistic knowledge, so they have to make deliberate attempts at learning lexical items often connected to a synonym, definition, translation into L1, or an illustration.
A Study on Chinese Vocabulary Learning Strategies of Second Language Learners
A significant amount of vocabulary can be successfully learnt through the often criticised rote learning Carter, Still, vocabulary acquisition is not merely a mental collection of individual lexical items with a correspondence to L1 lexical items.
As has already been mentioned, familiarity with a lexical item includes more than knowing its semantic aspect. Vocabulary learning is the acquisition of memorised sequences of lexical items that serve as a pattern on the basis of which the learner creates new sequences. The main task is to discover the patterns in the language, starting from phonological categories, phonotactic sequences i.
This implies that language production is based on assembling ready-made chunks suitable for particular situations, and that language comprehension relies on the ability to predict the pattern that will appear in a given situation.
Although it might appear illogical at first sight, it is the ability to use conventionalised and predictable language sequences that brings an L2 Factors Affecting Vocabulary Learning and Acquisition 17 learner closer to the native speaker.
Therefore, the task of the L2 learner is to acquire lexical sequences collocations, phrases and idioms , as well as sequences within lexical units. A precondition for an automatic analysis of such information is sufficient exposure to language input or explicit teaching and awareness raising Ellis, An important source of vocabulary in L2 learning is a wide range of contexts.
Learners can learn lexical items if they are exposed to sufficient amounts of comprehensible input. Nagy claims that an average learner can learn to recognise up to words a year from written materials. An ideal source for learning L2 vocabulary from context is reading Ellis, Low-frequency lexical items the ones that are characteristic of individuals with a wide vocabulary occur more frequently in written than in spoken language.
Besides, the learner has more time at his or her disposal for analysis, hypothesis testing and inferencing if working on a written text. Context-based inferencing contributes to the knowledge of morphological rules, collocations, additional meanings for it is the context that determines the meaning of a lexical unit , etc. However, mere exposure during reading does not guarantee a rapid vocabulary growth. In order to accelerate the process, the learner must have critical strategic knowledge that will enable him or her to turn the incidental learning into an explicit learning process.
Individual Learner Differences Vocabulary learning strategies play an important role in vocabulary learning. Their significance is reflected practically in all the factors discussed so far.
Vocabulary learning strategies activate explicit learning that entails many aspects, such as making conscious efforts to notice new lexical items, selective attending, context-based inferencing and storing into long-term memory Ellis, However, the influence of other factors that account for individual learner differences, such as the affective ones motivation, attitudes towards vocabulary learning, fear of failure or the language learning aptitude, should not be neglected.
This will be addressed in more detail in Chapter 2. A look at the teaching practices in the past suggests that the status of formal vocabulary teaching has always been influenced by current trends in linguistic and psycholinguistic research.
The naturalistic approach to language teaching, for example, favoured implicit incidental vocabulary learning.
The emphasis was on guessing the meaning from context and using monolingual dictionaries, whereas defining and translating lexical items were to be avoided. A precondition for successful inferencing is a sufficient level of knowledge and inference skills. However, even if this precondition is met, inferring word meaning may still result in incorrect guessing, and such errors may be difficult to rectify.
Although having inference skills may contribute to vocabulary growth, rich vocabulary is not necessarily a consequence of having inference skills. It has become apparent, on the basis of the above-mentioned arguments, to all subjects involved in the processes of language teaching and learning, that vocabulary acquisition cannot rely on implicit incidental learning but needs to be controlled.
Explicit vocabulary teaching would ensure that lexical development in the target language follows a systematic and logical path, thus avoiding uncontrolled accumulation of sporadic lexical items.
International Journal of Humanities and Cultural Studies (IJHCS) ISSN 2356-5926
However, the contribution and effect of explicit vocabulary teaching on vocabulary acquisition is still under dispute. Learners do not learn everything that teachers teach. Lewis b describes teaching as being linear and systematic, but it is wrong to conceive of learning as being the same.
The contemporary approach to vocabulary teaching, one concludes, recognises the importance of both implicit and explicit teaching, taking into account the results of scientific Factors Affecting Vocabulary Learning and Acquisition 19 research, with the aim to increase the efficiency of teaching and learning of target language vocabulary.
Which teaching strategy a teacher will employ depends on the time available, the content i. Teaching strategies are also dependent on specific principles and in correlation with other factors influencing vocabulary acquisition discussed earlier in this chapter.
A distinction is made between planned and unplanned vocabulary teaching strategies Seal, Planned vocabulary teaching refers to deliberate, explicit, clearly defined and directed vocabulary teaching. It encompasses the use of teaching strategies, i. Nation, In the following subsections we turn to a more detailed exploration of each of the two categories.
Presentation of new lexical items Under the presentation of new lexical items one understands the teaching of preselected lexical items in the planned stage of a lesson. The teacher presents both the meaning and form of the lexical item, which may occur in either order.
The meaning of lexical items can be presented verbally or non-verbally. The most frequently mentioned ways of presentation are the following:. Connecting an L2 item with its equivalent in L1. This teaching strategy is mostly used when checking comprehension, but can also be used when it is necessary to point out the similarities or differences between L2 and L1, especially when these are likely to cause errors e.Hangman, I spy, Bingo. The phenomena of homonyms and antonyms in Arabic are old issues that have caused a dispute among Arab linguists past and present.
Download pdf. Phase II: The first is automatisation, i. Similarly, its usefulness should not be overrated, because there are cases in which its use is impossible, or is dependent on a number of factors, such as phonological and orthographical similarity between L1 and L2, the word class of the keyword, the possibility of creating a mental image of the keyword, etc.
Thus, the focus of research becomes the focus of the definition of LLS. Different aspects of L2 acquisition are then supported by cognitive abilities that are best understood if they are linked to the information-processing stages.
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